John Kotter has used the undefined term “human nature” for decades now to explain why the sorts of generalizations I make about organizations and managers seem applicable anywhere: in different countries, industries, corporate cultures. The patterns he sees help explain superior or inferior organizational performance, leadership, and management cut across settings because – at some level – people are people. But until recently he had not tried to clarify what this mysterious human nature is, or how it relates to superior performance in general and, more specifically, leading complex change. With the help of inspiration from some of his colleagues (Russell Raath and others at Kotter, Professor Richard Boyatzis from Case Western Reserve University), he has been refining observations he has made over the years about people-as-people. He has been testing his conclusions with some straightforward Darwinian thinking and with help from researchers in brain science. What he has found is that a simple concept of one part of “brain/body hardwiring” appears to have rather profound implications for those trying to run organizations today in an increasingly fast moving world. He shares his insights in this White Paper.